There are many different sciences out there that contribute information that can be used to aid conservation efforts. These range from anatomy to zoology. So, I thought I’d make a list of some of the main ones and briefly explain what each science studies. Many of these sciences overlap and some of these fields of study have sub-fields. Eg. many in the list fall under the science of biology. There are many other specialisations that I have not included here, but this list is a good start.
The study of the structure (and function, related to physiology *see below*) of organisms.
The study of chemistry related to living things.
The study of living organisms. This is a broad field that is typically divided into specialised fields
The study of plants.
The study of the climate.
The study of conservation where research is aimed towards the protection and/or restoration of the natural environment and wildlife. This science typically overlaps with other sciences, such as ecology.
The study of the interactions of organisms with other organisms, as well as the interactions between organisms and the abiotic (non-living) environment. Under the umbrella of ecology there are also smaller fields such as population ecology, which looks at population dynamics.
A science that studies both the living and non-living environment. It includes other fields such as biological science, atmospheric science and soil science.
The study of the behaviour of animals.
The study of genetics is quite self-explanatory. It studies genes and their inheritance (heredity). There are other sub fields. For example: population genetics is a sub-field of genetics that looks into the gene frequencies of populations and the dynamics of these frequencies.
The study of marine organisms and ecosystems.
The study of microscopic organisms. This science often includes mycology, virology, and some parasitology, among other fields.
The study of fungi.
The study of parasites.
The study of diseases.
The study of the evolutionary relatedness of species (sometimes populations).
The study of the functioning of living organisms, often the function of the anatomy (anatomy and physiology are closely linked).
The study of soils.
The study of viruses.
The study and health profession of diagnosing, treating and preventing health problems in animals.
The study of animals. This science is often divided furthers based on which animals are being studied. Some examples of these smaller fields: Arachnology (arachnids), Entomology (insects), Herpetology (reptiles), Mammalology (mammals), Ichthyology (fish) and Ornithology (birds)