Orange Clownfish: Amphiprion percula
The orange clownfish is a popular fish in the pet industry and they have become further well known after the Finding Nemo movie (Who is looking forward to Finding Dory later this year!? 😀 ), although Nemo and Marlin are Amphiprion ocellaris (False percula clownfish). Amphiprion percula and Amphiprion ocellaris are often confused as they are so similar (and I do not claim to be an expert on clownfish), but can be identified by the number of spines in the first dorsal fin, with A. percular having 10 and A. ocellaris having 11.
These fish are within a group of fishes termed anemonefish. This is due to their mutualistic (both organisms benefit) relationships with anemones. The anemones protect the fish by detering/consuming predators with their nematocysts/stings, whilst the fish protect the anemones mostly from parasites. The anemones may also get some nutrition from the clownfish excrement, as the clownfish may potentially consume dead matter from the anemone.
Research suggests that they can swim about the anemone without getting stung due to a mucus secreted from the fish. A. percula has also been found to be toxin resistant to some anemone toxins, yet not all anemonefish seem to posses this quality (Mebs, 1994).
The Orange clownfish is not currently listed as endangered, although some populations may be affected by fish being removed from the wild to become pets or add to pet industry breeding stocks.
Mebs, D 1994, “Anemonefish symbiosis: vulnerability and resistance to of fish to the toxin of the sea anemone”, Toxicon, Vol. 32, No. 9, pp. 1059-1068.
Veiled Chameleon: Chamaeleo calyptratus
Found naturally across Yemen and Saudi Arabia, veiled chameleons are mostly green (like the one above) or brown, with a casque on their heads. They can also display a variety of other colours dependent on the situation, typically when frightened or excited. Their eyes are also very interesting, as they can swivel independently.
These chameleons typically consume insects, however they may also consume some foliage. It is thought that they may eat the leaves more for their water content, than for nutrition.
The veiled chameleon is not considered to be threatened and is considered a pest in some of its non-natural distribution: Veiled chameleons are considered invasive pests in Hawaii. They have also been reported in Florida, likely due to released/escaped pets. The veiled chameleons in Florida are considered exotic, but have not yet been listed as invasive (haven’t been found to cause significant damage) to my knowledge.
The kingdom Animalia includes all animals except for protozoans (sometimes referred to as single-celled animals). All organisms within animalia are multi-cellular eukaryotes. They typically develop from embryos and are heterotrophic (needing to consume food/energy, rather than producing their own).
Bridled terns are sea birds that can be found across the world, across many waters, islands and coastal areas, particularly around tropical oceans. The birds are also known to be migratory.They are carnivores, consuming a variety of fish, crustaceans, cephalopods and insects.
They are globally listed as being of least concern. However,although the broader species is thought to be secure, some populations may be more threatened than others. Some of their threats are human disturbance (particularly the disturbance of nesting sites and breeding colonies), predation and natural disasters.
Sometimes referred to as the Australian crane, the brolga is a large Australian bird, typically over a meter in height, that can also be found in New Guinea. It is mostly a pale grey colour, with a red ‘cap’ on its head and down its face.
Brolgas are omnivores and they are diurnal (awake during the day). They are also well known for their dances during courtship.
The brolga is not considered to be a threatened species
Bush Stone-Curlew: Burhnius grallarius
The bush stone-curlew is a medium sized bird that walks upon two long legs. It has a grey-brown colouring to camouflage with its environment. The bird can be found in Australia, Papua New Guinea and some Indonesian Islands.
The bush stone-curlew is an omnivore, eating a variety of seeds and small animals such as insects and molluscs. The birds are mostly nocturnal, although they are occasionally seen during the day as well.
The bush stone-curlew is not considered to be threatened. Although, habitat destruction and predation by introduced predators, such as the red fox, may be negatively impacting some populations.
What is Migration?
Migration is the movement of animals from one place to another. Some species periodically migrate between locations based on seasonal or day-length changes. But, migration can also refer to the movement of individuals regarding populations and other defined areas.
Migration is a two-direction process with animals leaving and entering an area or population. These two directions are indicated with the words emigration and immigration.
Emigration is the outward-bound migration of animals, or animals leaving the defined area/population.
Immigration is the inward-bound migration of animals, or animals entering the defined area/population.
Why is Migration Relevant to Conservation?
Migration is relevant to conservation on the individual level, as it effects population dynamics which could be monitored with threatened species to assess if aid is required to ensure stable populations.
Migration is also relevant on a species level because, particularly if the species migrates periodically with seasons, it may regularly reside in multiple countries, which can effect the diplomacy of conserving the species as international cooperation and protection may be required.