Monera is a kingdom containing unicellular prokaryotes. The kingdom contains bacteria and cyanobacteria.
Protists belong to the kingdom of Protista. This kingdom contains unicellular organisms that are eukaryotes. These organisms may form colonies, but they may not form tissues.
Organisms within the kingdom fungi are eukaryotes and heterotrophs. There are both unicellular and multi-cellular examples of fungi. A major difference that separates fungi from the other kingdoms is chitin, which can be found in their cell walls.
Plantae is the kingdom that contains organisms commonly referred to as plants. Similar to animals, plants are also multi-cellular eukaryotes. Organisms within Plantae have cell walls containing cellulose and their cells also contain chlorophyll. They also tend to be autotrophs that typically use photosynthesis to create energy (food) for themselves. However, there are some parasitic and carnivorous plants that don’t rely, or don’t fully rely, on photosynthesis that still are classed within Plantae.
The kingdom Animalia includes all animals except for protozoans (sometimes referred to as single-celled animals). All organisms within animalia are multi-cellular eukaryotes. They typically develop from embryos and are heterotrophic (needing to consume food/energy, rather than producing their own).
Phylogeny is about the evolutionary relationships (the relatedness) of organisms. It shows us where in history organisms became different from one another, and which species they are more closely related to. Phylogeny is reflected in the taxonomy and binomial names (scientific names) of organisms.
Phylogeny can be useful in conservation as some more-related organisms may react in a similar way to certain threats. What has worked to conserve one organism may also help conserve another in a similar manner.
Binomial names are generated from the genus name and the species name. These names are typically written in italics, with a capital only at the beginning of the genus name.
Example: Tiliqua rugosa (Bobtail lizard)
There are different levels of taxonomic classification, with each becoming more specific from kingdom until species:
*In some cases these levels may also have sub-levels, such as a sub-phylum*